Poor/missing sounds or annoying music can be absolutely detrimental to a game however when sound is done well it's hardly even noticed by the player. It's surprising how often times sound seems to be overlooked or at the least not as well thought out as other design elements of a game. However good sound design is very effective at giving the player feedback even if the player is fully aware of the sounds they are hearing. Music also has a similar effect in that it's extremely effective at creating a mood while simultaneously not being obvious. While good sound design may go unnoticed yet be integral to good design, bad/missing sounds will stick out like a sore thumb and have a negative effect on the player's experience.
Example 1: Journey to the Center of the Earth Edit
The best way to give you an idea of how noticeable poor sound design can be is by letting you hear it for yourself:
The sound on this is so laughably bad you may think this was dubbed over.... it's not. Notice that the lack of sounds from the environment make it feel less believable but how it also really makes the bad sounds even more noticeable. The developers should have considered adding more than one sound for jumping as it is something the player will be doing often.